Response of herbivore functional groups to sequential perturbations in Moorea, French Polynesia.
The reefs surrounding the island of Moorea, French Polynesia, experienced two large pulse perturbations between 2008 and 2010, an outbreak of the crown-of-thorns seastar (Acanthaster planci) followed by a cyclone, that resulted in the reduction in live coral cover on the fore reef from ~40 to <5 %. Live coral cover in back reef and fringing reef habitats initially remained relatively stable, but began a gradual decline around 2010. We assessed the changes in the functional composition of the herbivorous fish community following the pulse perturbations and during the time of gradual coral decline on the back reef and fringing reef. Forty-nine species of herbivorous fishes quantified in yearly surveys between 2006 and 2014 were assigned to six functional groups: browser, detritivore, excavator, farmer, grazer/detritivore, and scraper. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analyses revealed that despite unique functional assemblages initially existing among the fringing reef, back reef, and fore reef habitats, the herbivorous fish communities in all three habitats responded in a qualitatively similar fashion to coral decline by moving toward functional communities characterized by an increased representation of excavators and scrapers. Island-wide scraper biomass increased by *sevenfold in the post-disturbance time period, while excavator biomass increased by nearly threefold. The biomass of detritivores and grazers/detritivores also increased over the same time period, but to a much lesser degree, while the biomass of browsers and farmers remained essentially unchanged. Macroalgae remained a relatively minor space holder (< 10 % cover) in lagoon habitats and on the fore reef through 2014, enabling recruitment of juvenile coral and initiating coral recovery on the fore reef. Results suggest that a functional community with a substantial biomass of herbivores and the capacity for the biomass of scrapers and excavators to increase rapidly in response to landscape scale declines in coral cover may enhance resilience by preventing the widespread establishment of macroalgae.